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Jumat, 23 April 2010

PARALLEL STRUCTURE

One use of a conjunction is to connect words or phrases that have the same grammatical function in a sentence. This use of conjunction is called Parallel Structure. The conjunction used in this pattern are : and, but, or, nor.*

(a)            Steve  and his friend are coming to dinner
(b)            Susan raised her hand  and snapped her fingers.
(c)            He is waving his arms and (is) shouting at us.

(d)            These shoes  are old but comfortable
(e)            He wants to watch TV or (to) listen to some music.

In (a): noun + and + noun

In (b):verb +and + verb

In (c): verb + and + verb (the second auxiliary may be omitted if it is the same as the first auxiliary.)
In (d): adjective + but + adjective
In (e): infinitive + or + infinitive (the second to may be omitted)
(f)      Steve, joe and alice are coming to dinner
(g)     Susan raised her hand, snapped her fingers, and asked a question.
(h)     The colors in that fabric are red, gold, black and green
A parallel structure may contain more than two parts. In a series, commas are used to separate each unit. The final commas that precedes the conjunction is optional but is customarily used.(No commas are used if there are only two parts to a parallel structure.)

  • more specifically and, but, or, nor are called coordinating conjunction.

Parallel structure membuat pengulangan kata yang sama tidak perlu
This form of parallel structure, in which unnecessary words are omitted but are understood, is termed ellipsis

Example :
1.                  Mary opened the door. Mary greeted her guest.
à Mary opened the door and greeted her guest.

2.                  I like coffee. I do not like tea
à I like coffee but not tea.
 * sometimes comma precedes but not:  I like coffee, but not tea

3.                  The country lane was narrow.
The country lane was steep.
The country lane was muddy
à The country lane was narrow, steep and muddy.

  • Menggunakan konjungsi berpasangan: Both…. And; Not Only ..... But Also; Either …. Or; Neither….. Nor
à Paired conjunction are also called Correlative Conjunction

Example :
1.                  Both my mother and my sister are here à two subjects are connected by both … and take a plural verb.
2.                  Not only my mother but also my sister is here à when two subjects are connected by not only … but also;either …. Or; or neither … nor, the subject that is closer to the verb determines whether the verb is singular or plural.
3.                  The research project will take both time and money à notice the parallel structure in the examples. The same grammatical form should follow each word of the pair.

  • Menggabungkan Klausa bebas dengan konjungsi
Example :
1.                  It was raining hard, and there was a strong wind. àUsually a comma immediately precedes conjuction.
2.                  It was raining hard and there was a strong wind. à Sometimes in short sentences the comma is omitted.
3.                  It was raining hard. And there was a strong wind. à Sometimes in informal writing a conjunction may begin a sentence.

a. He was tired, so he went to bed

b. The child hid behind his mother’s skirt, for he was afraid of the dog

c. he did not study, yet he passed the exam
In addition to and,but,or and nor, other conjunctions are used to connect two independent clauses :
So (meaning therefore, as a result)
for (meaning because)
yet ( meaning but, nevertheless)
a comma almost always precedes so, for, and yet when they are used as conjunctions. so, for, and yet have other meanings in other structures.

  • Klausa adverbial – Pendahuluan
Example :
(a)        When we were in New York, we saw several plays
(b)        We saw several plays when we were in New York.

            Punctuation : When an adverb clause precedes an independent clause, as in (a), a comma is used to separate the clauses, When the adverb clause follows, as in (b), usually no comma in used.

  • Menggunakan klausa adverbial untuk menunjukkkan hubungan waktu.

Example :
1.      When I arrived, he was talking on the phone

2.      While I was walking home, it began to rain
3.      By the time he arrived, we had already left.
When= at the time (notice the different time the relationships expressed by the tenses.)
While = during that time

By the time = one event is completed before another event.

  • Menggunakan klausa adverbial untuk menunjukkkan hubungan sebab-akibat
Example :
1.          Now that the semester is finished, I’m going to rest a few days and then take a trip.
à Now that means because now. Now that is used for present and future situations.

2.          He went to bed because he was sleepy
à an adverb clause may precede or follow the independent clause.

  • Menggunakan preposisi untuk memperlihatkan sebab akibat : because of dan due to.

Example :
1.                  Because of the cold weather, we stayed home
2.                  Due to the cold weather, we stayed home
Because of and due to are prepositions; they are followed by a noun object.


  • Menggunakan transisi untuk memperlihatkan sebab akibat : therefore dan consequently.

Example ;
       a.      Ali didn’t study. Therefore, he failed the test
      b.      Ali didn’t study. Consequently, he failed the test
à Therefore and Consequently are mean “ as a result”. In grammar, they are called transitions (or conjunctive adverb). Transitions connect the ideas between two sentences.

  • Menyatakan Tujuan : Menggunakan So That

Example :
       a.      I turned off the TV so (that) my roommate could in peace and quite.
à so that also expresses purpose. The word “that” if often omitted, especially in speaking.
So that + Can or Could
      b.      I’m going to cash a check so that I can buy my textbooks.
à so that is often used instead of in order to when the idea of ability is being expressed. Can is used in the adverb clause for the present/ future meaning.
So that + will/ simple present or Would
       c.      Yesterday I took my umbrella so that I wouldn’t get wet
à would is used in past sentences.

¨      Ringkasan dari Pola dan Tanda Baca.

Adverb Clause
Because it was hot, he went swimming
An adverb clause my precede or follow an independent clause
Preposition
We went swimming because of the hot weather.
A preposition is followed by a noun object, not by subject or verb
Transition
It was hot. Therefore, we went swimming.
A transition is used with the second sentence of a pair. It shows the relationship of the second idea to the first idea. A transition is movable within the second sentence.
Conjunction
It was hot, so we went swimming.
A conjunction comes between two independent clauses.

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